The Ketogenic Diet (also known as “Keto Diet” or “Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet”) revolves around the body entering into a metabolic state known as ketosis. Getting your body into this state requires knowledge of what your body actually needs in terms of calories, carbohydrates, fats, and protein but largely works off drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and moderately limiting protein intake. We will talk more about this in another post about understanding your macros. In this state, your body does a few things differently. The main things to focus on relate to the utilization of fat (both the fat in your body and the fats that you consume as food) and the resulting production of ketone bodies.
Ketones as a Source of Energy
There are multiple different ketones that the body is capable of producing through body fat and fat from the diet. Production of these ketone bodies takes place in the liver; this is done to create a new source of energy that can be used by the whole body – including the brain! These ketones, as well as the fat in your body and the fats that you are eating, take the place of glucose as the main source of energy (aka calories); but they only do so if your ketone levels are high enough. And the way to keep your ketones high is to keep your daily grams of carbs low. This new source of energy burns cleaner and longer in the body than glucose and helps most individuals to experience more consistent energy levels throughout the day, decreased inflammation in the body, and helps to shed excess body weight.
Macros: Fat, Protein & Carbohydrates
While this way of eating is remarkably successful in reducing excess weigh and managing blood-sugar levels, there are many individuals who maintain their current healthy weight by adapting the number of calories they get from Fats, Proteins, and Carbohydrates. This way of eating requires a certain level of commitment on the part of the individual looking to become ketogenic because it requires you to know your body and what it needs to feed it – aka your macros. There are a number of macro calculators available online, such as the MyMojoMacros, that can help you determine – based on your height, weight, age, gender, and activity level – how many calories, grams of fats, net carbs, and protein are required to fuel your body based on your nutrition goals (weight loss, weight maintenance, or even bulking). For many people turning to Keto to aide in losing weight and fat loss, changing to this way of eating will require a reduction in total calories – the majority of which will come from the elimination of carbohydrates in the diet (so, goodbye high-carb diet and most sweeteners). Some may also need to limit their protein intake as well (but this is different for each person depending on their individual activity levels).
Treating Disease with the Ketogenic Diet
The Ketogenic diet has been utilized in a number of different countries around the world for a number of different reasons. In the United States, much of the medical/dietary research on this diet revolves around its use for patients with seizure disorders (epilepsy) because of its predilection for reducing seizure activity in the brain. However, with the increasing incidents of type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and other chronic diseases in the Unites States and around the world, more research is being done on this diet and its applications for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors – obesity and diabetes being among the most studied. It is important to know that not all people react to things the same and that this way of eating is no exception to that rule. Factors such as age, gender, family and personal medical history, and genetics can influence your body’s response to eating the specific macronutrients to keep your body in ketosis, and should be discussed with your medical provider or with a medical provider or dietitian that knows your health history and has an understanding of the ketogenic diet.
What Can I Eat on a Ketogenic Diet?
While the Ketogenic Diet is said to be high in fats, it really is relative. Fats make up the larger percentage of your macros, making this a high fat diet. This is a big misconception. The Ketogenic diet eating plan, when done properly, is full of fresh vegetables, good fats, dairy, and meats. There are many great vegetables that provide vital vitamins, fiber, magnesium, etc. that are low carb/keto friendly. In addition to veggies, your meal plans can also have some berries in moderation. Unfortunately, many fruits are just too high in carbs so they are not good options for those following a Keto Lifestyle. Next comes meats/proteins. While you want to take in a high percentage of fats each day on the ketogenic diet, you do NOT want to eat too much protein. This is another common misconception with the diet. Just like your carb intake, you CANNOT have whatever you want when it comes to protein.
Even though meat is generally 0 carbs, it has calories and protein (both of which needs to be tracked and consumed to meet your specific macros). Consuming too much protein will put you at a disadvantage as you will not have the room calorie wise for additional macros and micro nutrients to make this a well-balanced Ketogenic Diet plan in addition to negatively impacting your state of ketosis. While in a future post we will discuss this more in depth, the basic idea is that when you are consuming too much protein your body will initiate gluconeogenesis in which your liver turns protein (amino acids) into fuel for the body. If your body is doing this, it will hinder your ability to get into ketosis and, in some cases, may cause weight gain. This is typical of those that start the ketogenic diet and are mistakenly eating a low carb diet that is high protein instead of a very low carbohydrate-moderately low protein, high fat diet, which is what the ketogenic diet truly is. Knowing what your actual moderate protein intake requirement is and sticking to it is vital for your health and the success of your ketogenic lifestyle. Those that exercise vigorously, lift weights, or routinely run long distances require more calories from protein than those that live a sedentary lifestyle. Make sure whichever macros calculator you decide to use takes into account your activity level so you can get the most out of your diet and get into and stay in ketosis.
Getting All of Your Vitamins and Minerals on Keto
In addition to your moderately low protein intake, you want to make sure you are getting the most out of your macronutrients and taking in a good amount of micronutrients. What are micronutrients? Micronutrients are the vitamins and minerals you need to maintain a healthy balanced diet. This means that bacon and bulletproof coffee is just not going to cut it. Leafy greens, other non-starchy vegetables, avocados, broccoli, and cauliflower are ketogenic staple; they provide you with fiber essential vitamins and minerals to keep you at optimal health. Those that do not get in the proper micronutrients often complain of keto-flu side effects such as constipation, fatigue, muscle cramps, headaches, and hair loss to name a few. These complaints are not only common for those not getting in their micronutrients on the ketogenic diet, but all diets. Vegetables are a very good source for magnesium, potassium, and fiber and cannot and should not be replaced by supplements alone. No supplement can provide you with a better source of vitamins and minerals then just eating a diet full of vegetables with those same vitamins and minerals in them.
Keto: A Healthy Way to Eat and Live!
In conclusion, the ketogenic diet is the opposite of a low-fat diet. It’s a very high fat, moderately low protein, low carbohydrate diet that when followed appropriately includes healthy sources of fats (avocados, olive oil, coconut oil, mct oil, dairy), micronutrients from vegetables (spinach, cauliflower, broccoli), and protein from meats (pork, beef, chicken, fish)/eggs/nuts. It’s easily tracked and managed if you calculate your macros and create a keto meal plan that stops you from eating beyond your daily recommended net carbs. While some people use it for the short-term, it is a sustainable lifestyle that while restrictive in carbohydrates allows for optimal health benefits and a great many other options to leave you feeling satisfied and living a healthier life. Bonus: it’ll eliminate your extra water weight and food cravings, too!