So you have made the decision to start the ketogenic diet (or way of life as so many of us like to call it)! But now you are looking at a food label and wondering what you can eat and how do you know it’s keto approved? This is one of the most common questions asked in the keto community on blogs, Facebook, and Instagram. We’re going to try and break it down into 4 easy steps.
Does It Fit Your Macros?
A ketogenic diet is a low carbohydrate, moderately low protein, high fat diet. Whether you are tracking your specific macros, eating to the ketogenic macro percentages (60-75% fat, 15-30% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrates), or eating to your meter (testing ketone levels multiple times a day and adjusting consumption based on readings) you want to choose foods that are low in carbohydrates, high in fats, and moderately low in protein. So when you look at a nutritional label the first thing to ask yourself is, “does this fit into my macros”? Second, look at what percentage of your macros this food will take up. If you are looking at a breakfast option that has 15 grams of carbohydrates and you have 20 grams of carbohydrates a day this would not be a good option. This would use up ¾ of your carbohydrates for the day. To be safe, go with the 1/3 rule. Never eat more than 1/3 of your carbs in one sitting.
What Is The Serving Size?
After looking at the nutritional facts and determining that the food/product fits within your allotted macros it’s time to look at how much of that product you get for those specified calories/carbs/proteins/fats. This is where things start getting sneaky! If the serving size has under 0.5 gram of carbohydrates or other macronutrients the company can report it as zero (Office of Regulatory Affairs, 2014). For example: the BBQ Rub pictured bellow states its 0g of carbs! Great, that means it’s safe, right? Well the second ingredient is sugar, so no. This is a perfect example of the company using a small serving size to manipulate the nutritional facts. A serving size of ¼ tsp has less than 0.5g of carbohydrates and thus can be reported as 0g of carbohydrates. Someone that didn’t look at both ingredients and serving size would think they could season their chicken breast to grill with and be perfectly fine. But who only uses ¼ tsp of seasoning on a chicken breast, heck who can even season a chicken thigh with that little (not us… Seasoning = Flavor)?
What Are The Ingredients?
In a ketogenic diet, you want to be checking the ingredients section as well as looking at the nutritional facts. This is because the nutritional facts labels are often “manipulated” to make the food appear healthier. For example, by creating a small serving size you can give the appearance of the food being low in calories and carbohydrates.
Ideally, you will be choosing whole foods with no added ingredients, but this isn’t a perfect world… people get busy, have budgets, and who doesn’t want to try new recipes and keto baking? So you want to examine the ingredients and be looking for obvious No-Nos: Flour, starch, insoluble syrups, oats/grains, and sugar. Unfortunately Sugar isn’t just spelled S-U-G-A-R.
Is There Sugar In This? Are There Hidden Sugars:
When we say, is there sugar?, we are talking the “natural” sugar and the added type. One of the reasons you cannot eat watermelon on the Ketogenic diet is because of the high amount of natural sugars in the fruit which translates into carbohydrates. This is the same reason why tomatoes are only recommended in moderation as they are a moderately high carbohydrate vegetable (or fruit depending on who you ask).
As far as added sugar goes that’s where things can get tricky. Sugar isn’t only written SUGAR. It comes in many forms and names:
In a perfect world, what you are eating would not have ANYTHING from this list in it. There are times when it will be okay in moderation. Did you hear that? Some will chose to eat “Clean” and they are very strict and will consume NO sugars at all and that is fine, more power to you! But many do choose to consume in moderation. So let’s explain what that means.
When looking at a food label, where does the aforementioned “sugar” come into play? Is it one of the first 3 ingredients? If so, that’s generally an automatic no. As we talked about before, ingredients are listed in order of weight. When looking at the ingredients list and seeing sugar as the first or second ingredient, it is almost 100% of the time going to mean you cannot have this. If sugar is the third ingredient, then it can go either way. Ideally, you would want to choose a better option, but sometimes budget and availability makes this more difficult. If it’s a large serving size or will be used to make a large serving size this could be ok on occasion. If you can plan ahead, you can usually find a substitute online or a recipe to make your own!
Then there are foods such as bacon, that are cured with sugar and it’s the 3rd ingredient. This is where we refer to serving size and macros. If the serving size is very small it’s a no. And some may say, “Small is relative” and that’s true. But we don’t think anyone is going to be happy and satisfied with ¼ slice of bacon (who isn’t disappointed when we find out we can’t have the whole package). So if the serving size is 1 slice of bacon at 0g of carbs we would say that is fine even though sugar is listed as the 3rd ingredient. While this may not be for everyone, this is where testing your ketones and blood glucose levels come into play. Anytime you are unsure or trying a new product or recipes, take a pre and post ketone and glucose level to see how they food affects you personally. What is right for one individual may not be right for another.
In conclusion, like many things in life, it’s not always black and white or yes and no. You need to look at the whole picture and most importantly YOUR whole picture.
Office of Regulatory Affairs FDA. (2014, November 25). Inspection Guides - GUIDE TO NUTRITION LABELING AND EDUCATION ACT (NLEA) REQUIREMENTS-ATTACHMENT 6-8.
Retrieved April 16, 2018, fromhttps://www.fda.gov/ICECI/Inspections/InspectionGuides/ucm114098.htm